Tuesday, April 7, 2020
John Brown's raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, In October 1859, involved only a handful of abolitionists, freed no slaves, and was over in two days. Although many Northerners condemned the raid, by 1863 John Brown had become a hero and a martyr in the North. The views about John Brown expressed in the documents illustrate the strained relationship between the North and South before the civil war(1859-1860) and the severely crippled relationship after the civil war. In 1859 before the Civil war the Northern-Southern relationship was strained with such laws as the Kansas-Nebraska act, 'legalizing' slavery through popular soveirgnty in the territories, and the Dredd Scott decision practically legalizing slavery in any territory(without popular sovereignty). Soon after John Brown's famous raid, Northerners condemned him(Doc. A) for combating a 'great evil'(Slavery) in an 'unfit way'(through fighting), They said this because it was unconstitutional to fight without going through the government and there are other ways to get rid of slavery. This basically was a last ditch effort to save the south from succeeding from the union and to hold the thread that was holding the relations of the North and South together. By 1860, the dreaded election of 1860 was here and the Civil war would soon start due to the 'Railsplitter' Lincoln winning the election. Views of John Brown in the North were gaining more momentum as he became more popular(Doc. D). More Northerners began to feel it that John Brown had done it the right way. The Democrats at this time were using tactics to use John Brown against the Republicans that were for it, this failed and showed that most northerners were with John Brown all the way(Doc. E). He began to be more like a martyr in the north toward the end of 1860(Doc. F). When Lincoln was elected the South immediately succeeded and the Civil war began shortly after. During the Civil War John Brown rose to Hero and Martyr status and a famous song of the civil war was pledged to him(Doc. G). In Conclusion, the views of John Brown between 1859-1863 clearly showed how the North-South relationship was hanging on a thread and was cut as John Brown became more famous between these periods and into the Civil War.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Many people regard HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epics as war stories- stories about men; those people often overlook the important roles that women play in the Odyssey. While there are not many female characters in the Odyssey, the few that there are, play critical roles in the story and one can gain a lot of insight by studying how those women are portrayed. Homer portrays the females in conflicting ways: the character of Athena is given a strong, admirable role, while the Sirens are depicted in a much more negative way. Penelope- the central female character- is given both negative and positive attributes. Athena, the goddess of wisdom and battle, has a soft spot for Odysseus, the main male character, and Telemachus, Odysseus' son. The action begins with a meeting of the gods, where Athena makes a plea on behalf of Odysseus, asking her father, Ã¢â¬Å"O Zeus, what do you hold against him now?Ã¢â¬ (I, 81). This action, paired with another intervention into a meeting of the gods, shows AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative and nerve. Athena shows cleverness and ingenuity when she disguises herself and others on several occasions: The goddess first appears as Mentes, and then later as Mentor, Telemachus himself, PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, a friend of NausikaaÃ¢â¬â¢s, and various servants. Not only is Athena a master of disguises, but she also has an incredible sense of when it is necessary to appear as someone else in order to achieve her goals. While possibly just a product of AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s goddess status, her ability to view the Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ is quite a highly regarded trait. Athe na also has the virtue of restraint, which she demonstrates when she does not take part in the final battle between Odysseus and Telemachus, and the suitors. Another portrayal of women in The Odyssey is the Sirens. This is a group of women whose seductive song lures sailors to their death (XII, 173-4). While Odysseus is able to avoid the Sirens, they symbolize temptation, another non-virtue, which is th... Free Essays on Odessey Women Free Essays on Odessey Women Many people regard HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epics as war stories- stories about men; those people often overlook the important roles that women play in the Odyssey. While there are not many female characters in the Odyssey, the few that there are, play critical roles in the story and one can gain a lot of insight by studying how those women are portrayed. Homer portrays the females in conflicting ways: the character of Athena is given a strong, admirable role, while the Sirens are depicted in a much more negative way. Penelope- the central female character- is given both negative and positive attributes. Athena, the goddess of wisdom and battle, has a soft spot for Odysseus, the main male character, and Telemachus, Odysseus' son. The action begins with a meeting of the gods, where Athena makes a plea on behalf of Odysseus, asking her father, Ã¢â¬Å"O Zeus, what do you hold against him now?Ã¢â¬ (I, 81). This action, paired with another intervention into a meeting of the gods, shows AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative and nerve. Athena shows cleverness and ingenuity when she disguises herself and others on several occasions: The goddess first appears as Mentes, and then later as Mentor, Telemachus himself, PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, a friend of NausikaaÃ¢â¬â¢s, and various servants. Not only is Athena a master of disguises, but she also has an incredible sense of when it is necessary to appear as someone else in order to achieve her goals. While possibly just a product of AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s goddess status, her ability to view the Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ is quite a highly regarded trait. Athe na also has the virtue of restraint, which she demonstrates when she does not take part in the final battle between Odysseus and Telemachus, and the suitors. Another portrayal of women in The Odyssey is the Sirens. This is a group of women whose seductive song lures sailors to their death (XII, 173-4). While Odysseus is able to avoid the Sirens, they symbolize temptation, another non-virtue, which is th...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Bacterium Capsule - Research Proposal Example It is a layer that lies outside the cell wall of bacteria, it is well organized and it is not easily washed off. This makes it diffuse through the tracheal system. Its slime layer diffuses into the surrounding medium as a loosen-demarcated secretion. The capsule usually consists of polysaccharides and is water soluble thus dissolves in the moisturize tracheae through the spiracles. Thus they are difficult to stain using standard stains as they do not adhere to the capsule (Chapman, 2004). Since the capsule remains pale and colorless, it is difficult to be detected and appears as a ring around the cell. The tracheae are water filled as they consist of a permeable membrane of the surrounding tissues which make the capsule soluble since it is water soluble. The water level, however, retracts due to the increase in the concentration of lactic acid found in the muscle cells during the respiration system. The capsule contains external chemical sensors which therefore detects the concentration of lactic acid, lowering the water potential in the system which is then drawn back into the cells through osmosis process while the capsule gets closer to the muscle cells. While the diffusion pathway is reduced as a result, the capsule can then be transferred more easily through the tracheal. The bacterium capsule is typically stimulated for easy movement throughout the system. The neurosecretory cells made in the cell body consist of the prothoracic gland which acts as circulatory s ystem storage gland and hormonal control of insect molting (Ulrich, 2009).
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Environmental Conflict Resolution - Research Paper Example The expansion of the Oka golf course was approved in 1989 by the Oka mayor. The golf course would cover the land claimed by the Mohawks and it would include sixty luxury Condos and nine additional holes on the course that included members only. The MayorÃ¢â¬â¢s office refused to discuss the issue despite the fact that many people in the region were against the expansion. This caused acute uproar from the Mohawks who decided to take an action by setting up barricades leading to the site where the expansion was being made. The mayor once again blocked all avenues of discussion and sternly ordered the barricades to be removed. The Mohawks were not ready to desert their quest for justice so easily and so they refused to dismantle the barricades. This made the Mayor to deploy the Quebec provincial police and the SQ to intervene and clear the barricades as well as removing the Mohawks who were demonstrating from the site. The way the Local government handled the case leaves many questions unanswered and so this paper will try to show the role of each party in environmental conflict management. The parties included in this case are;- 2. The legal system which is responsible for making the judgmentsÃ¢â¬â¢. Some of the judgments though based on the law fail to address the case at hand and so laws should be set to accommodate the communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ historical information. 3. The local and the federal government should not use excessive force on its citizens. As it is always better to prevent a cause than to cure the disease, negotiations should always be emphasized. The interests of the community should be considered and the law should be applied to ensure that there is justice and peace after the issue is
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
India-US Relations and its Implications for Pakistan Abstract With the emergence of the United States as the most powerful actor in the world, India re-adjusted its foreign policy and began to work more closely with this sole superpower. United States reciprocated by supporting Indias race to achieve the status of a Great Power in the 21st century and striking a deal for extensive strategic partnership. The US Indo strategic relationship, despite the strategic relationship between the United States and Pakistan, could increase asymmetry in the balance of power between Pakistan and India, which might lower the nuclear threshold between the aggressive neighbors. Need for the project To overcome the problems and come up with the proper solutions. Literature review Pakistan and India needs to resolve their bilateral issues on their own. The US have encouraged them to resolve their issues by peace talks but US would not get involved in it. US have importance of its relationship with each of the both countries. They do recognize that for India and Pakistan there are many outstanding issues between them that would be resolved by dialogue. (Cardin, 2016) The US has also opened all doors of military and technology to India, and also encouraged Israel and other allies to do as well. India has been the worlds largest arms importer, for last 8 years and buying over a $100 billion in weapons yearly, two-thirds of which are deployed against Pakistan. Besides, US political and military support encourages India in its aggressive behavior towards Pakistan. It is not likely that Pakistan suffers collateral damage from the United States arming of India against China. The US has imposed formally and informally discriminatory and severe limitations on Pakistans gaining of advanced and dual-use technologies and weaponry systems from the United States or allied sources. US also opposes the defensive response of Pakistan towards Indias build-up: fissile material production, long-range missiles and theatre nuclear weapons. Pressure on China has been exerted not to transfer any advanced weapons and technologies to Pakistan. Unless this scenario is cha nged, the capabilities of Pakistan for conventional defense and the nuclear deterrence against India could be significantly eroded. (AKRAM, 2016) US having tilt towards India in these recent years, Rabbani stated that United States has an agreement on civil nuclear cooperation with India, but it refuses to offer Pakistan any similar deal, casting a doubt on Pakistans utility for the United States at the time when major combat operation have been winded down in Afghanistan. (Raza Khan, 2016) The role of United States in the region has evolved in recent years. The relations between United States and India have been blossomed while the relations between United States and Pakistan have become more troubled. In the past, Pakistan pursued U.S. involvement as a way to internationalize the dispute over Kashmir, whereas India has actively opposed any United States policy interest in a resolution for the Kashmir issue. India has not been desperately welcoming the intervention of United States unless it came with promises to force Pakistan to crack down on groups that attacked India. Meanwhile, most of the Pakistanis probably do not trust U.S. to be an honest broker in regional disputes. (DALTON, 2016) United States interests in the South Asian region, although not vital, but are important and increasing. These interests includes the prevention of a major war or further nuclear proliferation; increasing economic growth, investmentÃ and trade; promoting tough democratic institutions; and cooperating on the issues ranging from enhancing stability across Asia in fighting terrorism and drug trafficking. The end of the Cold War should allow a significant improvement of mutual relations between Washington and both New Delhi and Islamabad which are the two principal South Asian states. But seizing this opportunity will require extra creative thinking and skillful diplomacy. (Rose, 1997) Hypothesis USA shares good ties with Pakistan and India and does not want to create instability between them but India will use its relation with USA against Pakistan. Research Methodology Secondary data, includes books, journal articles and news articles. Objective of Research This research will help in understanding the complexity of the relations between US-India-Pakistan References AKRAM, M. (2016, April 20). The Indo-US alliance. Dawn News. Cardin, B. (2016, June 1). Impact of US-India relations on Pakistan discussed. Dawn News. DALTON, T. (2016). Pakistan: Challenges for U.S. Interests. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Raza Khan. (2016, May 11). Relationship between Pakistan and United States is imbalanced. Dawn. Rose, G. (1997). A New U.S. Policy Toward India and Pakistan. Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Art Censorship Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In recent news there was a controversy over art shown in Santa Fe Community CollegeÃ¢â¬â¢s gallery. The artist Pat Payne created obscene religious pictures that for the most part were mocking the Catholic religion. I feel that there is no need for artwork to be censored if in an appropriate place. Placing paintings that may seem to be obscene in an art museum, gallery, or anywhere else that attract mostly mature individuals is appropriate and obviously placing those same pieces of art in an elementary school would be inappropriate. My point being that artworks of any type being placed in Santa FeÃ¢â¬â¢s art gallery should not be an issue. The majority of individuals looking at Santa FeÃ¢â¬â¢s gallery are older and mature, and if children are being brought into a place like this, ad...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Over the years, many researchers have dedicated their time and energy to study adolescent alcohol abuse. They have found that there are many factors that contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse. These factors are psychological, environmental, social, and cultural. Not all of these factors play a part in every adolescent who abuses alcohol, but one of these factors is usually present. Psychological disorders have been found in both American, and Taiwan adolescents who abuse alcohol. The health risks of adolescent alcohol abuse are great. Alcohol affects the physiology of a young person. It disrupts the genetics and hormonal balances that are critical in the early development of youngsters. Treatment of alcohol abuse is a great state of change and development. Many therapists, doctors and counselors are trying to incorporate new treatment ideas and methods into the traditional techniques that have been used for years now. It is important to research the factors that contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse because if these factors are detected early, and an adolescent is put into a prevention program the likelihood that they will abuse alcohol will greatly decrease. Psychological Factors. See more:Ã Manifest Destiny essay According to the research, there have been many psychological problems found in adolescents who abuse alcohol. The majority of the research has been done in order to solve the question of whether or not these psychological factors are present before an adolescent abuses alcohol, or after the alcohol abuse has occurred. In the research done by Rhode, Lewinsohn, and Seeley (1996), they used a community sample of 1,507 adolescents between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. The adolescents were classified into the categories of abstainers, experimenters, social drinkers, problem drinkers, and abuse and/or dependent groups. In this study, 373 subjects met the criteria for depression, 15 were bipolar, 93 suffered from manic core symptoms, and 124 had an anxiety disorder (Rhode et al. , 1996). Furthermore, anxiety disorder and depression were psychological disorders that were more prevalent in female adolescents with alcohol abuse than their male counterparts. Males who abused alcohol tended to suffer from antisocial personality disorder. It is believed that females who suffer from anxiety disorder or depression use alcohol as a self-medication to make them feel better. According to Clark, and Bukstein (1998), one form of antisocial disorder known as conduct disorder lead adolescents to act out and seek out new experiences. This is probably the reason why adolescent males with an antisocial disorder turn to alcohol abuse. According to Rhode (et al. , 1996), Ã¢â¬Å"More than 80% of adolescents with an alcohol use disorder had another psychiatric disorderÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ (p. 106). In his study, the alcohol abuse tended to follow rather than proceed the psychiatric disorder. From this, it can be concluded that certain psychological disorders such as antisocial disorder, and depression are a factor in adolescent alcohol abuse. Environmental Factors Many studies have focused on the environmental factors that adolescents are exposed to, and how these factors lead to alcohol abuse. The aim of a study performed by Clark, Lesnick, and Hegedus (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Was to examine trauma history and other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol dependence or abuse and to compare them with a sample of community-dwelling adolescents without alcohol use disorderÃ¢â¬ (p. 1746). This study included 256 adolescents between the ages of fourteen and eighteen (Clark et al. , 1997). Adolescents who abused, or were dependent on alcohol reported more traumas then those in the control group. The types of abuse experienced by males and females tended to differ. Females experienced more sexual abuse, and males tended to be victims of violent acts. Both sexual abuse victims, and victims of violent acts showed increased amounts of alcohol use than those adolescents who were not abused in any way. If subjects experienced a number of traumas, they tended to abuse alcohol more than those that experienced only one trauma or no trauma at all. From this study, it can be concluded that trauma and abuse leads to adolescent alcohol abuse. Social Factors A study done on Hispanic and Black adolescents in the New York inner cities concluded that there were indeed social factors that contributed to adolescent alcohol abuse. The study used a sample of 4,874 Hispanic and African American seventh graders. The purpose of the study was to identify the social risk factors that promote adolescent alcohol abuse in Hispanic and African American (Epstein, Botvin, Baker, & Diaz, 1999). If an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s friends tended to drink on a consistent basis, he/she showed a greater amount of alcohol abuse than those who did not associate with friends who did drink alcohol. Also, family members play a major part in adolescent alcohol abuse. The family is another social factor that contributes to adolescent alcohol abuse. If an adolescent saw their parent consume alcohol, they also tended to abuse alcohol. Parents were not the only family members that influenced adolescent alcohol abuse; siblings also had an influence. If a sibling abused alcohol, the adolescent models this abuse. Their findings were present in both Hispanic and African American adolescents. Cultural factors. In the study done by Epstein and her collogues, cultural differences were also a factor in adolescent with alcohol abuse. According to Epstein (et al. , 1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Hispanic adolescents consumed more alcohol per drinking occasion and had greater intention to drink in the future than black adolescents. This was true when the models were tested separately for girls and boysÃ¢â¬ (p. 16). The use of alcohol among Hispanics could be due to the fact that it may be a cultural practice that allows an adolescent to identify with their culture. Religion is another cultural factor that plays a role in adolescent alcohol abuse. African American religions consider the consumption of alcohol a sin, so if an African American practices in their religion they are less likely to abuse alcohol than someone who does not practice their religion. However, this was not a factor for Hispanic adolescent alcohol abuse. A final cultural difference may be that more Hispanic adolescents have immigrated to this country in past years than black adolescents have. Therefore Hispanic adolescents have had the added stress of adapting to a new society. In turn Hispanic adolescents turn to alcohol abuse as a way of coping with their increased stress. Taiwan All of the studies mentioned above were performed in the United States. However, there have been studies done in other countries on adolescent alcohol abuse. One study was done on adolescents living in Taiwan. The results were very interesting. Many of the factors that are presents in American adolescents were also found in adolescents living in Taiwan. According to Chong, Chan, and Cheng (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Among those successfully interviewed, 411 were males and 363 were females. Their mean age was 15. 23 yearsÃ¢â¬ (p. 1389). Like American adolescents who abused alcohol, Taiwan adolescents also had psychological factors presents. The most common psychological disorders found in Taiwan adolescents were disruptive behavior disorder, depression, and antisocial disorder. These disorders were also present in American adolescents. Alcoholism and Health Adolescent alcohol abuse is recognized as a major health concern in the United States. According to Arria and Tarter (1991), Ã¢â¬Å"It is likely that an older adolescents who first consumed alcohol in the preteen years will experience greater alcohol-related medical complications than will an adolescent who has been drinking for a shorter period of timeÃ¢â¬ (p. 52). Although the length of time that an adolescent has been drinking is a major factor related to health, it is not the only one. Other factors may include how much alcohol is consumed at one sitting, and just what age the adolescent began to drink. Very heavy drinking may cause accidental injury. And, drinking at an early age may cause gross developmental complications. Arriea and Tarter (1991) noted that many adolescents also experiment with other drugs, while they are under the influence of alcohol. Other drugs may range from marijuana to crack cocaine and LSD. Using alcohol and other drugs combined can cause serious health risks and concerns. One major concern of adolescent alcohol abuse is the effects that abuse has on puberty. The results of the abuse may be most prevalent in the growth of the adolescent. It has been shown in both human and animal studies that alcohol consumption can stunt the physical growth of an adolescent approaching and during puberty. Arriea and Tarter (1991), stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"normal physical growth is dependent on a complex interaction between genetic, hormonal, and environmental influencesÃ¢â¬ (P. 53). Alcohol severely effects this interaction. Treatment Whenever we talk about alcohol abuse with adolescents, we must talk about the treatment. Without proper treatment, the adolescent will end up in the same place over and over again. In the study done by Bukstein (1994), he stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"treatment for adolescents currently are undergoing rapid changes,? , by reducing their costs and emphasizing less restrictive treatment modalitiesÃ¢â¬ (p. 298). Many of the longer 28 or 38 day inpatient programs are being transformed into outpatient or partial hospitalization plans. Because these shorter programs have not been around long enough to gather information for testing, it is unable to tell if they are going to have any kind of affect on the adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s rehabilitation. I feel that these cuts will have a negative effect on the treatment of youngsters. I think that these shorter programs may work for adults, but they will not work well with the adolescents because of the emotional immaturity present in young people. While many researchers believe that traditional treatment programs are the key, there has been some interest in alternative programs. According to Bukstein (1994), many programs are beginning to integrate an array of, Ã¢â¬Å"family or behavioral treatments, health services, vocational and educational services, and recreational activities in addition to 12-step principlesÃ¢â¬ (p.299). This kind of treatment combines traditional 12-step programs with new innovative ideas of reaching the child through various activities. Once again, this kind of treatment is not yet able to be tested because of its immaturity. It will be very interesting to see what kind of affect this treatment will have. Conclusion There are many factors that contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse. These factors may be psychological, environmental, social, or cultural. If these factors were detected in an adolescent at an early age, it could prevent the adolescent form abusing alcohol. Health problems due to heavy alcohol abuse could also be prevented if these factors are detected early enough. Treatment is a crucial part of dealing with an adolescent that is suffering from alcohol abuse. I believe that much research must be done to ensure that methods are being executed properly. There has been some effort to combine new treatment with traditional ones. I believe that this is a good thing. It will be interesting to see if this new treatment will help. References Arria, Amelia M. , Tarter, Ralph E. (1991). The effects of alcohol abuse on the health of adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 15 (1), 52-57. Bukstein, Oscar G. (1994). Treatment of adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol Health and Research World, 18 (4), 296-301. Chong, M. Y. , Chan, K. W. , & Cheng, A. T. A. (1999). Substance use disorders among adolescents in Taiwan: Prevalence, sociodemeographic correlates and psychiatric co-morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 26 (6), 1387-1396. Clark, D. , Lesnick, L. , & Hegedus, A. (1997). Traumas and Other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol abuse and dependence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36 (12), 1744-1751. Clark, D. , & Bukstein, O. (1998). Psychopathology in adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol Health & Research World 22 (2), 117-121. Epstein, J. , Botvin, G. , & Diaz, T. (1999). Impact of social influences and problem behavior on alcohol use among inner-city hispanic and black adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60 (5), 595-604. Rhode, P. , Lewinsohn, P. , & Seeley, J. R. (1996). Psychiatric comoribidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1), 101-109. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse Juvenile Delinquency.